ESP8266 and the Arduino IDE Part 2: Control an LED from a web page using Access Point Mode (AP)

In the first part I explained how to set up the IDE and got the basic blink sketch working. Here I go through building a web page control panel to control the LED remotely. I will start with a basic web page and then slowly refine it so we end with a simple but elegant control panel.

For this example I will be using the ESP8266 as an access point (AP Mode). This means the ESP8266 will create its own little network which we can connect to. The ESP8266 will then serve a small web page which we can view on a mobile device or any web enabled device such as a laptop.

I still have the LED connected to pin D1 but now I want to turn it on and off from a web page viewed on a mobile device. The web page will need 2 buttons, one for on and one for off. It would be nice if it also showed the current LED status. Something like “LED is on” and “LED is off”. Since this is a first example of a web control the actual web page should be as simply as possible.

I won’t go in to detail about creating web pages, if you are new to this there are many other sites to help you.

Continue reading

ESP8266 and the Arduino IDE Part 3: Control an LED from a web page using Station Mode

In the previous part we used the ESP8266 in Access Point mode where the ESP8266 generated it’s own mini network. Here we get the ESP8266 to connect to an existing wifi network. To do this we use the ESP8266 in Station Mode (STA). Switching to Station Mode is done by the library automatically so we do not need to mess around.

When using the ESP8266 in Station Mode, the connecting device has to be connected to the same network as the ESP8266. In AP mode, since the ESP8266 creates its own network, other local networks don’t matter.

ESP8266_Part3

Continue reading

ESP8266-01 Programming Breakout Board

Here is my 5V ESP8266-01 programming breakout board.

ESP8266-01_ProgrammingBoard_002_1200

I am now programming the ESP8266’s via the Arduino IDE and I found using bread boards and wires was annoying, especially because I have a habit of VCC and GND mix up. I have a small pile of dead ESP8266-01s, dead due to shorting them while moving wires around. They are next to the pile of Arduino Nanos I have killed for the same reason.

Since starting to use the ESP8266’s again I have made a couple of breadboard friendly breakout boards. Version 1 worked but moving wires was inconvenient (the ESP8266 was in the way). Version 2 was better but I still had to mess with power, resistors and lots of wires. This lead me to version 3. A fully self contained programming breakout board.

Continue reading

Arduino with HD44780 based Character LCDs

Updated on 2017.04.29.

Introduction
Arduino Libraries
Parallel Interface: Getting Started with a JHD162A 16×2 display
I2C Interface: Getting Started with a J204A 20×4 display with I2C daughter board
Creating custom characters

Introduction

HD44780 compatible LCDs come in many shapes and sizes and two very common ones are the 16×2 and 20×4 characters. Although most screens come with a back light some do not. And although the original interface is parallel some screens come with an I2C adapter/daughter board pre attached (you can buy the I2C adapters separately).

A 16x2 and a 20x4 character LCD display

A 16×2 and a 20×4 character LCD display

Continue reading

Arduino with Optocouplers

There are many types of optocoupler and you chose one based on the requirements of your circuit. My intention was to create a automatic shutter trigger for my Canon camera, so the circuit was a 5V Arduino and a Canon 40D which has about 3.2V on the shutter release connections. Due to the relatively low voltages there are many suitable optocouplers to pick from. I already had a Fairchild 4N26 so this is the one I used.

4N26

4N26

Optocouplers are digital switches. They work by using an LED emitter paired with a photo detector transistor. This means they can be used to allow one circuit to switch a separate circuit without having any electrical contact between the two. Basically, if you put a current through pins 1 and 2 and light the LED the photo detector transistor detects the light from the LED and allows a current to flow through pins 5 and 4. No current on pins 1 and 2 means current does not pass through pins 5 and 4.

Continue reading

HM-10 Bluetooth 4 BLE Modules

Updated 2017-11-14.
Since I first posted about the HM-10 the firmware has been update several times and some of the commands have changed. Therefore, I decided to redo the guide. For this update I am using modules with firmware 5.49 (regular) except the one I am using for the firmware update guide which started with v5.40 and becomes 5.47.

Firmware version 5.49 is now available from the Jinan Huamao website. There are 2 versions; regular and long name. The regular firmware does not have an updated read me so I don’t know what changes, if any, have been made. The long name firmware adds, you guessed it, long names. Device names can now be up to 29 characters. At the same time the iBeacon function and the ANCS function have been removed. Unless you desperately need long names I suggest you stay with the regular firmware.

2017-07-26 Firmware 5.50 now available.
2017-09.01 Firmware 6.01 now available (bug fixes, no new commands)
2017-10.xx Firmware 6.03 now available Extended the CO command. Added AT+MPIO (multi PIO control). See the readme file for details. The manual has not been updated at this time (Nov 2017).

2018-03-24. Jinan Huamao support say that the HM-10 (original ones, not copies) are compatible with Android 8. I do not have Android 8 so have not tried and cannot confirm.
They have now added a comment on their website saying the HM-10 works with Android 8.

2018-03 HM-10s with firmware 6.05 are now available but Jinan Huamao are not releasing the firmware. Not sure if this is just for now or permanently. v6.03 is still the latest firmware available for download.

It appears that Jinan Huamao are cracking down on fakes. Apart from not releasing the latest firmware the latest HM-10s have “HM-10″ screen printed on the PCB.

Image taken from the Jinan Huamao website

Image taken from the Jinan Huamao website

 
Introduction
Bluetooth 4 BLE
HM-10 Services and Characteristics
Get Started With the HM-10
Getting an Arduino talking to the HM-10
HM-10 AT Commands: Using the Arduino’s serial monitor to talk to the HM-10
Scanning for other HM-10s
Arduino to Arduino using HM-10s
HM-10 to HM-10: Turning an LED on and off
HM-10 Programmable Pins
HM-10 Stand-alone MODE 2 and Controlling LEDs
HM-10 Stand-alone: Remote Light Sensor
HM-10: Add a second Custom Characteristic
Using the HM-10 with non-HM-10 modules (not fully working)
HM-10 as an iBeacon
HM-10 Updating the firmware
HM-10 Downloads

 
 

 

Introduction

The HM-10 is a small 3.3v SMD Bluetooth 4.0 BLE module based on the TI CC2540 or CC2541 Bluetooth SOC (System On Chip). The HM-10 is made by Jinan Huamao and is one of many Bluetooth devices they produce including the HM-11 which is operationally the same as the HM-10 but has a smaller footprint with fewer pins broken out.

There are 2 versions of the HM-10; the HM-10C and the HM-10S
HM-10C-HM-10S

The HM-10C does not have the pads along the bottom (the usb connections) and has 26 pads instead of 34 which makes it a little cheaper to produce. There may be other differences (such as the type of crystal used) due to the date of manufacture. Operationally the two are the same though.

HM-10 Basic specs

  • +2.5v to +3.3v
  • Requires up to 50mA
  • Uses around 9mA when in an active state
  • Use 50-200uA when asleep
  • RF power: -23dbm, -6dbm, 0dbm, 6dbm
  • Bluetooth version 4.0 BLE
  • Default baud rate for the serial connection is 9600
  • Default PIN is 000000
  • Default name is HMSoft
  • Based on the CC2540 or the CC2541 chip

The latest HM-10s all appear to the the CC2541 chip. This is the same as the CC2540 except it is lower power and has a shorter range. The CC254x is based on the 8051 and runs at 32MHz.

The HM-10 is has become a very popular Bluetooth 4 BLE module for use with the Arduino. In part due to the standard UART serial connection that makes it fairly straight forward to connect to an Arduino. The UART layer is a good thing and a bad thing, it allows ease of use but it hides the BLE layer so you have no control over the actual BLE side of things. The HM-10 is Bluetooth version 4.0 only. This means it cannot connect to Bluetooth 2/2.1 modules such as the HC-06 and HC-05.

The HM-10 is controlled via AT commands which are sent over the serial UART connection. There are a host of commands, some simple, some more complex, and these are covered later.

Continue reading

HC-06 hc01.comV2.0

HC-06_hc01.com_02_800

ZS-040_HC-06_hc01.comV2.0

The latest zs-040 HC-06 modules have an updated firmware, hc01.comV2.0. This firmware has the following defaults:
– baud rate = 9600
– password = 1234
– nl/cr line endings not required.
– AT commands are required to be in upper case
– Firmware version = hc01.comV2.0
– Name = HC-06
– No parity
– SLAVE mode

Since the Bluetooth hardware is the same as the previous zs-040 HC-06s the Bluetooth specs are also the same. Bluetooth 2.0 EDR, SSP.
These use a slightly different BT module than the other zs-040 boards and there is a blue LED at the top left of the daughter board.
Continue reading

Arduino to Arduino by Bluetooth

Updated 12.06.2016: Added example 2

In the Connecting 2 Arduinos by Bluetooth using a HC-05 and a HC-06: Pair, Bind, and Link post I explained how to connect a HC-05 to a HC-06 so that when powered they automatically made a connection. Here we look at using that connection to get Arduinos talking over Bluetooth. Before continuing you need to have the Arduinos and BT modules set up as per the previous post. Here I am using 2 HC-05s. One in master mode the other in slave mode. The setup process for the slave mode HC-05 is the same as the HC-06 in the previous post.

Arduino2ArdionoBT_Breadboards_01_1600

Continue reading

Bluetooth Modules

Updated: 21.07.2017

new Bluetooth Modules

There are many very similar Bluetooth modules available and sometimes it can be difficult finding out, not only which one you have, but also how yo use them. Here I look at some of the modules I have and try to show the basic settings.

Getting Started
Connecting To A Computer
Android Apps

Bluetooth 2.0/2.1 EDR Modules
    HC-06 (ZG-B23090W) Bluetooth 2.0 EDR modules
    HC-05 (ZG-B23090W) Bluetooth 2.0 EDR modules
    SPP-C HC-06 / BT06 HC-06
    HC-06 zs-040 hc01.com v2.0
    HC-05 zs-040 hc01.com V2.1
    HC-05 FC-114 and HC-06 FC-114
    HC-05 and HC-06 zs-040 Bluetooth modules

Bluetooth 4 / BLE Modules
    HM-10
    HM-11
    BT05-A mini BLE Bluetooth V4.0 iBeacon
    AT-09 Bluetooth V4.0 CC2541

Continue reading

ESP8266-01 Bread Board Adapter

Update: 2017-01-15
Although the below adaptor works I found it inconvenient. The rear connectors are blocked by the ESP8288. I therefore built a ESP8266 bread board adaptor version 2

After a lengthy pause I have started playing with the ESP8266 modules again and I was getting annoyed by all the wires when using them on a bread board. So, like others before me, I built a small bread board adapter.

ESP8266BreadbaordAdapter_03_1600

Continue reading

Android MIT App Inventor – Auto Connect To Bluetooth

In a previous post I showed how to connect an app inventor Android app to a Bluetooth module connected to an Arduino to control an LED. See Turning a LED on and off with an Arduino, a HC-06 and Android

A few people have asked how to make it so that the app auto-connect to the Arduino on start up and I thought I would offer my solution. This example adds to the previous guide.

Continue reading

App Inventor 2 Pseudo Screens

A!2_Pseudo_Screens_01
As you may have noticed from some of the other posts, I use App Inventor 2 to create Android apps. I do not have time to learn JAVA programming and I found App Inventor an easy way to get in to the world of Android apps. AI2 is not perfect. It is designed as a teaching aid rather than a fully featured Android programming language and as such there are many things missing. However, you can create some surprisingly advanced apps with it. The Arduino Bluetooth Control and the dropController apps were created in AI2 as is the new Bluetooth Control Panel app.

Continue reading

HC-05 FC-114 and HC-06 FC-114. Part 3 – Master Mode and Auto Connect

Update 19.09.2015
The FC-114 boards I have have the Bolutek firmware. User DS has reported that he/she has FC-114 boards that have the linvorV1.8 firmware. So if the below does not work for you then check what firmware you have.

I may be missing something but I can not get the HC-05 FC-114 boards in to Master Mode and connect to other BT devices with just AT commands. The modules say they have accepted the commands, such as AT+ROLE1 but when I try to connect to other modules I get the error message “Can only be used in Lord Mode”.

The modules accept “AT+ROLE1″ and report they have changed mode but they haven’t really.

In an earlier post I mentioned that it looks likes pin 27 or pin 28 has to be pulled HIGH to enter Master Mode and this does indeed seem to be the case. Everything I have tried without pulling the pin(s) HIGH has failed.

HC-05_FC-114_autoConnectSerialMonitor01
They reply with “OK” and if you interrogate with “AT+ROLE” they report “+ROLE=1″ but they are actually still in Slave Mode.

Continue reading

HC-05 FC-114 and HC-06 FC-114. Part 2 – Basic AT commands

Update 19.09.2015
The FC-114 boards I have have the Bolutek firmware. User DS has reported that he/she has FC-114 boards that have the linvorV1.8 firmware. So if the below does not work for you then check what firmware you have.

Since the HC-05 FC-114s and the HC-06 FC-11s share the same firmware the following should work on either module.

The default setting on start up is Slave Mode waiting for pairing or a connection and also accepting AT commands. This means it is fairly simply to start using AT commands.

HC-05 FC-114 & HC-06 FC-114_1200

Continue reading