Update: The BLE extension included with the examples is out of date and does not function fully any more. Download the latest version from the app inventer BLE extention download and replace the existing extension. Do not delete the old version, upload the new version and it will over write the older version.
You can check the latest version of the BLE extension on the app inventor BLE page.
Hopefully this guide will give you a good introduction to using the HM-10 with App Inventor 2. I also hope that this takes you beyond the usual starter guides that do not go past very basic information.
Although I am using an Arduino the principles will be the same for any other microprocessor or indeed for using the HM-10 on its own. Warning: This is going to be a very long post.
To use this guide you should be somewhat familiar with App Inventor, have a BLE enabled Android device, and of course have an Arduino and a HM-10.