05.12.2015 Updated the photos.
In a previous post I showed how to make your own Arduino on a breadboard. The next step is programming it.
Using an Arduino Nano to program a ATmega328P chip
There are many guides online on how to use an Arduino to program a ATmega chip, two goods ones are:
Using an Arduino as an AVR ISP (In-System Programmer)
Nick Gammon’s guide
If you google “using Arduino as a programmer” you will find most of the results are for using an UNO, very few are for the Nano. One Nano guide I did find is at Lets Make Robots This explains how to set up the Nano but it does not clearly show how to program a stand alone Atmega chip.